Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
The TWO Creation Accounts of Genesis!
There is a great difference between the CREATION event described in Genesis chapter one and the FORMING event described in Genesis chapter two. It is common practice for most Christians to assume that chapter two is simply a rehash of chapter one -- with additional information provided. But when we take a close look at the differences between the two events in the two chapters, it becomes almost impossible to believe that they are describing the same event.
by John D. Keyser
In the Old Testament book of Genesis we find recorded the origins of the human race. In fact, we find TWO accounts -- one in chapter one and the other in chapter two -- both of which apparently contradict each other. In the first creation story, humans are created AFTER the other animals:
"And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them" (Genesis 1:25-27).
In the second story, humans were created BEFORE the other animals -- notice!
"And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof" (Genesis 2:18-19).
In the first creation story, the first man and woman were created SIMULTANEOUSLY:
"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them" (Genesis 1:25-27).
Then, in the second account, the man was created FIRST, THEN the animals, THEN the woman from the man's rib.
"And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them.... And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man" (Genesis 2:18-22).
Writes Manfred Barthel: "The unsuspecting reader is...confronted with a puzzling problem in the first two chapters of Genesis: two consecutive and mutually contradictory accounts of the Creation. In the first account God creates the heavens, the oceans, and the earth, and man [plural -- mankind] is the final event on the program; in the second we are simply told that 'the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden,' and a man [singular] is the first creature to be brought into being. This seems to be a fairly glaring inconsistency, to say the least" (What the Bible Really Says, p. 33).
So what is the answer to this conundrum? How can we explain these inconsistencies?
What the Reference Works Say
Most commentaries and Bible reference works state that these two accounts are parallel and complement each other -- the latter in chapter two bringing out more detail than provided in chapter one. An example of this reasoning can be found in the dictionary Insight On the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 528) -- notice!
"Toward the end of the sixth day of creative activity, God brought into existence an entirely new kind of creature, superior to the animals even though lower than the angels. This was man, created in God's image and after His likeness. While Genesis 1:27 briefly states concerning HUMANKIND 'male and female He [God] created them,' the PARALLEL ACCOUNT at Genesis 2:7-9 shows that Jehovah God formed man out of the dust of the ground, blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the MAN came to be a living soul, for whom a paradise home and food were provided" (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. 1988).
This is the commonly held belief, and if you were to ask almost any Christian who the first human being was, they would inevitably answer that it was Adam -- and that the two accounts in Genesis reflected that. There are, however, some Christians out there who DO NOT believe that Adam (and Eve) were the first two humans created by YEHOVAH God. They believe that on the sixth creation day YEHOVAH God created humankind, while on the eighth creation day (the time following YEHOVAH's day of rest) He specifically created Adam and Eve. Who is right? What is the TRUTH?
Before we delve into this intriguing subject, let's take a look at some actual Old Testament renditions of Genesis chapters one and two. First, notice how The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible translates Genesis 1:26-27:
"And God said, 'Let us make HUMANKIND in our image, after our likeness, and let THEM [humankind] have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over the cattle, and over ALL the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.' And God CREATED HUMANKIND in His own image, in the image of God CREATED He THEM [humankind]; male and female He CREATED THEM."
Now, in chapter 2:7, 15-16:
"And the LORD God FORMED MAN of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and MAN became a living being....And the LORD God took THE MAN [Adam] and put him [not them] into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and to keep it. And the LORD God commanded THE MAN [Adam], saying..." (Translated by Abegg, Flint and Ulrich. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. 1999).
Notice, now, how The Original Bible Project translates these verses --
"And ELOHIM said, 'Let US  make MAN ('adam)  in OUR image, according to OUR likeness , and let THEM rule over the fish of the sea, and over the flying thing of the heavens, and over the animals, and over ALL  the earth, and over every moving thing that moves upon the earth.' And ELOHIM CREATED THE MAN  in His image: in the image of ELOHIM He created him; male and female He CREATED THEM" (Genesis 1:26-27).
Now chapter 2:7, 15-16:
"...then YHVH ELOHIM FORMED  THE MAN of the dust from the ground and He blew into his nostrils breath of life ; and THE MAN [Adam] became a living being ....And YHVH ELOHIM took THE MAN [Adam] and settled him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it. And YHVH ELOHIM commanded THE MAN [Adam], saying...
" The verb is PLURAL, for other examples of the same see Gen 3:5, 22; 11:7.
" Hebrew 'adam is used generically, OF THE HUMAN SPECIES AS A WHOLE, BOTH MALE AND FEMALE (note that both the male and female are addressed in the following verses).
" The Syriac text has here all the animals of.
" Or [the] MANKIND.
" Hebrew yatzar is used for the formation of the human being in the womb (Psa. 139:16).
" Hebrew nephesh chayyah."
("Selections from the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings," James D. Tabor Chief Editor. 1997).
The Ferrar Fenton Bible
The Holy Bible in Modern English (commonly known as the Ferrar Fenton Bible) was one of the earliest translations of the Bible into "modern English" -- i.e., English as spoken and written in the 19th and 20th centuries. Work on this translation was initiated by a London businessman named Ferrar Fenton who had acquired a great learning and understanding of ancient Sanskrit, Greek, Hebrew and Latin through being a distinguished member of the Royal Asiatic Society. As a tradesman he also had access to numerous ancient Septuagint and Masoretic manuscripts to aid in his translation, and he also used Brian Walton's Polygot Bible (1657) for minimal referencing.
The complete Bible was first published in 1903, though parts were published as separate volumes during the preceding eleven years. Fenton spent approximately fifty years working on his translation, with his sole goal "to study the Bible absolutely in its original languages, to ascertain what its writers actually said and thought." The result has introduced some interesting renditions that differ from what is commonly found in other translations.
His translation of Genesis 1:26-27, and Genesis 2:7, 15-16, is as follows:
"God then said, 'Let Us make MEN under Our Shadow, as Our Representatives, and subject to THEM the fish of the waters, and the birds of the sky, and the quadupeds, as well as the whole of the earth, and every reptile that creeps upon it.' So God created MEN under his own Shadow, creating THEM in the Shadow of God, and constituting them male and female" (Genesis 1:26-27).
Now Genesis 2:7, 15-16:
"The EVER-LIVING GOD afterwards formed Man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils PERCEPTION OF LIFE, BUT MAN BECAME A LIFE-CONTAINING SOUL....The EVER-LIVING GOD then took the MAN and placed him in the Garden of Eden for the purpose of cultivating and taking care of it. And the LORD GOD instructed the MAN, saying, 'For food you may eat of the whole of the trees of the Garden..."
As we can see, there are some appreciable differences between the two creation accounts in chapters one and two. It would appear, in fact, that there are TWO SEPARATE "creation" events separated by the seventh day of YEHOVAH's rest. Let us place these two accounts side-by-side in a chart form so that we can be aware of what the scriptures are trying to tell us.
All of Mankind Vs. Adam
Please bear in mind that the Hebrew word 'adam (aadam or aw-dawm, etc.; various spellings acceptable through transliteration differences) is translated into our English language in various ways. This, of course, adds some confusion to the subject under study. In other words:
(a) ADAM is a species (MANKIND in general, all races of mankind upon the earth,
(b) ADAM is also a tribe/race ("Adamites" -- those of the tribe of Adam, his descendants),
(c) ADAM is also the proper name of the first earthly ancestor of the Messiah (Adam from the Garden of Eden).
Early translators, including those of the King James Version of the Bible, indicate that the word for man ('adam) is PLURAL in Genesis chapter 1 and chapter 5 (verse 2), but SINGULAR in chapter 2. The Hebrew word for man in chapters 1 and 5 is without the Article. Without the definite Article "the" it is the collective noun with the meaning "mankind," as it would be in English. This is borne out by the use of the plural personal pronoun "them" referring to man in verses 26, 27 and 28. It seems apparent, then, that YEHOVAH God created male and female at the SAME TIME in chapter one of Genesis.
Following is a chart with two columns -- the column on the left pertains to ALL OF MANKIND other than Adam (known as "the sixth day CREATION"); and the column on the right pertains SOLELY TO ADAM and his offspring, his "tribe" (referred to as "the eighth day FORMING").
In Genesis Chapter One
In Genesis Chapter Two
(plural) were CREATED.
(singular) is FORMED.
They are created male and female at the same time. No 'Adam's Rib here!
Adam is formed some time before
They were simply created, human
Adam given the breath of
life, became a living soul.
They are told to multiply.
No such command given to Adam
Mankind given dominion over animals and fish.
Adam was a farmer.
The animals were wild
animals and the
They were domestic
animals and crop plants.
There was not yet rain.
"...went up a mist from the earth..." (Gen. 2:6)
The creation was completed. All the various races, men and women alike, were created. THEN ---->>>
But after that, in Gen. 2:5, YEHOVAH saw that He "did not have a man to till the ground" (farmer). So YEHOVAH then FORMED Adam.
Apart from the above, probably the most striking evidence that Genesis One and Two are NOT recording the same event is to be found in the following observations:
(1) In Genesis One, the plants and animals were created BEFORE man(kind) was created.
(2) In Genesis Two, the plants and animals were formed AFTER the man Adam was formed.
We have a man and a woman ("them") being created (bara') in Genesis 1 before the 'Adam (singular) who was formed (yatsar) in Genesis 2. "Created" and "formed" have different meanings. We cannot remain honest if we try to say that "created" = bara' is the same as "formed" = yatsar. (The same goes for the equivalent plasso and ktizo in the New Testament Greek).
One authority points out some other remarkable differences between the two words -- notice!
"CREATED: Hebrew word #1254; bara' -- to shape, to fashion, to create (always with God as subject) used of individual man, used of new conditions and circumstances, to be created, used of birth, used of something new.
"FORMED: Hebrew word #3335; yatsar -- to form, to fashion, to frame, used of human activity, used of divine activity, used of Israel as a people, to frame, to pre-ordain, to plan (figurative of divine) to purpose of a situation, to be predetermined, to be pre-ordained, to be formed."
As we can see, there is a certain Divine importance and destiny involved in "FORMING" that is not present in "CREATING."
The word "formed" is used (molded as clay) to describe the making of Adam. When man was formed he became a living creature. In the Hebrew it is "'eth-ha-'adham" -- which refers to the particular person "Adam" -- NOT a generic form for man. However, this same phrase can be found in Genesis 1:27, thus confusing the issue.
From this we can see that there is no problem about WHERE Cain found a wife -- it was from amongst those who were not "living souls" -- those of the sixth day of creation. We will cover this in more detail shortly.
There is -- from what we have already seen -- a great difference between the CREATION event described in Genesis chapter one and the FORMING event described in Genesis chapter two. As we have also seen it is common practice for most Christians to assume that chapter two is simply a rehash of chapter one with additional information provided. But when we take a close look at the fundamental and irreconcilable differences between the two events in the two chapters, it becomes almost impossible to believe that they are describing the same event.
The Apostle Paul Confirms This Understanding
There is an interesting account in the Book of Romans that reinforces the understanding that there were two different creation accounts recorded in Genesis 1 and 2 -- notice!
"But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing FORMED say to him who FORMED it, 'Why have you made me like this?' Does not the POTTER have power over the clay, from the same lump to make ONE VESSEL FOR HONOR and ANOTHER FOR DISHONOR? What if God, wanting to show His wrath and to make His power known, enduring with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath prepared for destruction, and that He might make known the riches of His glory on the vessels of mercy, which He had prepared beforehand for glory...(Romans 9:20-23, NKJV).
The Jewish New Testament renders these verses as follows:
"Who are you, a mere human being, to talk back to God? Will what is FORMED say to him who FORMED it, 'Why did you make me this way?' Or has the potter [YEHOVAH God] no right to make from a given lump of clay this pot for honorable use and that one for dishonorable [use]? Now what if God, even though He was quite willing to demonstrate His anger and make known His power, patiently put up with people who deserved punishment and were ripe for destruction? What if He did this in order to make known the riches of His glory to those who are the objects of His mercy, whom He prepared in advance for glory -- that is, to us [Israelites of the line of Adam]..."
These verses tell us that the Potter (YEHOVAH God) made TWO prime groups of vessels:
(a) "Prepared for destruction."
(b) "Prepared beforehand for glory."
As Paul indicates, YEHOVAH God had a purpose. We know that these vessels or groups had not done good or evil when the Potter made them. Also, we know that a fired clay pot can never be changed from the purpose for which it was made. It cannot be reshaped.
So we know that all people are NOT treated the same in the New Testament, as well as the Old Testament. Different races have clear-cut differing destinies in Scripture, and are stated to be the offspring from certain progenitors, who are not either Adam or Noah in a universal sense -- in other words those from the creation recorded in Genesis 1.
Also, the popular Church belief is the doctrine of “The brotherhood of man” which is based upon the surmise that all men of every kind are made in the image of YEHOVAH God. As we have seen, the Bible uses differing words for “man” in Hebrew and Greek which separate the “seed of the serpent” (the vessels prepared for destruction) from the “seed of the woman” (the vessels prepared beforehand for glory). It is the Adamic line which was made in YEHOVAH’s spiritual image, NOT the line from Cain or the pre-Adamites of Genesis 1.
Articles and Particles
The "'eth ha-'adham" in Genesis 1:27 can only be seen by reading from the manuscripts themselves because the Hebrew Articles and Particles are not always evident in the English Bible. In fact, the King James Bible leaves us high and dry here for while in the Hebrew the word "man" in Genesis 1:27 has BOTH the Article and the Particle, the Bible merely prints it as "man" without even capitalizing it; i.e., "So ELOHIM created man..." (Genesis 1:27). It doesn't even say "the man" -- whereby we might have been alerted to the presence of the Article.
To help clarify this issue, let's take a look at the different forms of the Hebrew word 'adam:
(1) 'adam is man, any man, men, mankind.
(2) ha-'adam with Article is the man.
(3) 'eth ha-'adam with Article and Particle is this same man.
Taking note of where the Articles and Particles fall in the original manuscripts, and taking this information and inserting it in the two Genesis passages, we get the following in English:
Genesis 1:26: "And God said, Let us make men, mankind in our image, after our likeness: and let them [men, mankind] have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
Verse 27: "So God created this same man in His own image, in the image of ELOHIM created He him; male and female created He them."
Genesis 2:7: "And the LORD God formed this same man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
Literally 'eth ha-'adam means "this same man" (that particular being spoken of). In Genesis 2:7 we know that "this same man" is talking about the one that YEHOVAH God formed in the Garden of Eden, however the 'eth ha-'adam ("this same man") in Genesis 1:27 is speaking of the male of the species who was created in the image of God (which is male -- all angels and God are male -- there is no female form in a spiritual body).
In other words "in the image of God created He him" (the male), but "male and female created He them" (i.e., not in the image of God, but that both male and female were created at the SAME TIME).
In the Garden of Eden that YEHOVAH God had formed, He put "'eth ha-'adam" (not any man, but "the Adam"). This is the man "Adam" formed from clay in Genesis 2:7 -- and NOT the "male and female" or the races of the sixth day creation of Genesis 1:27-28. Eden was a special place that YEHOVAH God made -- following the seventh day of rest -- for a SPECIAL MAN called Adam.
YEHOVAH God first created the wilderness, then the creatures -- followed by male and female of all races. And then He rested. The man Adam is of the eighth day creation, when YEHOVAH God formed him, and it becomes apparent that when Cain was sent into the wilderness he married into the sixth day creation's offspring.
Let's now look at Genesis 2:18:
"And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him."
"That the man" refers to a particular man -- Adam ('eth ha-'adam). This sets Adam apart from the other races created on the sixth "day" creation. The term "help meet" in the Hebrew text, should be translated "as his counterpart."
Going to the next verse in Genesis 2 we read --
"And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof" (Genesis 2:19).
These creatures that YEHOVAH God created and brought to Adam are what we would call domestic animals -- or farm animals. The nature and reason for Adam's (Ha-'adam's) existence was to till the soil (farming), so we see that the need for these animals existed.
The Adamic Race is White!
Incidentally, the name "Adam" (aw-dawm) -- first applied to the man in Genesis 2:19 and not applied to the creation account in Genesis One -- literally means "ruddy", taken from the Hebrew word (aw-dam) that means "to show blood (in the face), i.e. flush [blush] or turn rosy" (Strong's #119). This, it should be noted, is only possible with those who are white-skinned because other skin colors do not show flushing or blushing, and do not "turn rosy."
Writes Charles A. Weisman:
"Another unique aspect about Adam was his race. All Scriptural evidence indicates Adam was created a white man. Evidently the various "colored" types were created before Adam. The name "ADAM" (aw-dawm') in Hebrew means a "ruddy human being" (Strong's O.T. #120). It is derived from Strong's O.T. #119 -- ADAM (aw-dam'), which means "to show blood (in the face), i.e. flush or turn rosy." Only the white race has the characteristic of blushing or showing blood in the face or skin" (The Origin of Race and Civilization, Weisman Publications, Burnsville, MN 1996, p. 57).
Weisman goes on to say,
"Adam was evidently called or named "ADAM" because he possessed aw-dam characteristics -- that being of a ruddy or rosy complexion coming from the blood (hemoglobin) showing through his non-pigmented skin. This is what ADAM meant. These physical characteristics of aw-dam are found only in the white race. People of a very fair complexion often appear as though they are reddish or sunburnt since the hemoglobin readily shows through their skin. This was the case with Adam. Eve also had these characteristics (ibid., p. 58).
According to the geneticist William C. Boyd, Ph.D.:
"The color of normal human skin is due to the presence of three kinds of colored chemicals, or pigments. The most important of these pigments is melanin, a dark-brown substance....The second of the three pigments is carotene. This is a yellow substance which is present in carrots (from which it gets its name) and egg yokes as well as human skin....The third pigment is hemoglobin, which is the red coloring matter of blood....the hemoglobin occurs in the blood vessels beneath the skin, so that very little can show through. The presence of fair amounts of either melanin or carotene in the skin covers it up completely. Hemoglobin does show up however in the skin of white men, particularly in those of light complexion. It is the hemoglobin that accounts for pink cheeks and the ability to blush.
"On the basis of these differences in coloring, mankind is sometimes divided into (1) a "Black Race," high in melanin, (2) a "Yellow Race," low in melanin but high in carotene; and (3) a "White Race," low in both melanin and carotene" (Races of People, 1955, pp. 43-45).
That Adam and Eve were of the white race with this fair, ruddy or rosy complexion and the ability to blush, is verified in the Bible by many scriptures. King David -- one of Adam's direct descendants -- is described as follows in I Samuel 16:12:
"So they sent and brought him [David]. He [David] was ruddy-cheeked, bright-eyed, and handsome..." (Tanakh).
Then, in I Samuel 17:42 --
"When the Philistine caught sight of David, he scorned him, for he was but a boy, ruddy and handsome" (ibid.).
David's daughter Tamar was likewise fair, as we note in II Samuel 13:1:
"And it came to pass after this, that Absalom the son of David had a fair sister, whose name was Tamar..." (KJV).
Sarah and Rebekah, who were both descendants of Adam, were both described as being "fair" -- notice:
"And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he [Abram] said unto Sarai [Sarah] his wife, Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon:" (Genesis 12:11, ibid.).
"And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman [Sarah] that she was very fair" (Genesis 12:14, KJV).
"And the damsel [Rebekah] was very fair to look upon..." (Genesis 24:16, ibid.).
"And the men of the place asked him [Isaac] of his wife; and he said, She is my wife; lest, said he, the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah; because she was fair to look upon" (Genesis 26:7, KJV).
In Acts 7:20 Moses is described as being "exceeding fair":
"In which time Moses was born, and was exceeding fair, and nourished up in his father's house three months" (ibid.).
It is a fact that Job's daughters (whose father was one of the Adamic patriarchs) were widely known as the fairest women in all the land. This we find in Job 42:15 --
"And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job..." (KJV).
King Solomon -- son of David -- was described as being "clear-skinned and ruddy" in these verses:
"My beloved [Solomon] is cleared-skinned and ruddy, preeminent among ten thousand" (The Song of Songs (Song of Solomon), 5:10, Tanakh).
"...his [Solomon's] belly a tablet of ivory, adorned with sapphires. His legs are like marble pillars..." (ibid., verses 14-15).
In the Book of Lamentations we find that the Nazarites (consecrated persons of Judah) were exceedingly fair -- notice!
"Her [Judah's] Nazarites were brighter than snow and whiter than milk; they were more ruddy in body than rubies..." (4:7, NKJV).
Now let us notice that Esther, who became Queen of the Persian Empire, was a light- or fair-skinned person. She was of the tribe of Benjamin (Esther 2:5):
"He [Mordecai] brought up...Esther...and the maid was fair and beautiful" (Esther 2:7). This word "fair'' is the same word that was used when speaking of Sarah. It means "to be bright" and is the only place in all of the book of Esther where this word is used. We read that Vashti, the former haughty queen, was "fair" (ibid.,1:11). But the Hebrew word used here is a different word, and does not mean "to be bright," but it means to be beautiful. We read also of "fair young virgins," (ibid., 2:2, 3).
But the Hebrew word "yawfeh" is not used in regard to any of these women, but is used only in chapter 2, verse 7 in connection with Queen Esther. She had a "bright" or light skin. Esther was not only "fair," but she was also "beautiful." The Hebrew word translated as beautiful in verse 7 is "toar" and means "to delineate, outline, i.e., figure or appearance" (Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible). Not only was Esther a fair- or light skinned person, but she was also a person with a very beautiful figure.
The following facts should be borne in mind: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and their children were all descendants of Adam (Genesis 10:21-24). The people of Israel were, therefore, descendants of Adam. All of Adam's descendants were fair-skinned. There is not one scintilla of historical (biblical or secular) evidence to prove that any of the Semitic people were dark-skinned except by intermarriage.
It is clearly evident, then, that Adam was not the progenitor of the human races but rather ONLY the progenitor of the white race -- the Adamic race. "Each race," states Charles Weisman, "was a distinct and separate creation which would mean that each race is a distinct species of the Genus category Homo" (The Origin of Race and Civilization, p. 59).
The Importance of the 8th Day!
There is great significance to the number "eight" in the mind of YEHOVAH God! The number eight in the Bible represents a NEW BEGINNING -- meaning a new order or creation, and the Israelite man's true "born again" event when he is resurrected from the dead into eternal life. The number eight is a new first, hence the octave in music, color, days of the week, etc. It is the number which has to do with the Messiah (the second Adam), who rose from the dead on the eighth or new "first day."
E. W. Bullinger, in his book Number in Scripture, explains about the meaning and symbolism of numbers, including the number "eight." He declares:
"In Hebrew the number eight is Sh'moneh, from the root Shah'meyn, 'to make fat,' 'cover with fat,' 'to super-abound.' As a participle it means 'one who abounds in strength,' etc. As a noun it is 'superabundant fertility,' 'oil,' etc. So that as a numeral it is the superabundant number. As seven was so called because the seventh day was the day of completion and rest, so eight, as the eighth day, was over and above this perfect completion, and was indeed the FIRST of a new series, as well as being the eighth. Thus it already represents two numbers in one, the first and eighth" (p. 196).
Even as "seven" is YEHOVAH's number of perfection, or completion (as the Sabbath is the seventh day of the week, which completes and perfects the week), so "eight" is the same as the first day of the NEXT week, but counting from the days of the previous week. Thus it represents clearly "A NEW BEGINNING."
An example of "eight" used in this connection in the Scriptures is the fact that as Peter tells us, there were EIGHT souls in the Ark of Noah, who helped begin the NEW WORLD after the Flood! We read of the time when "the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water" (I Peter 3:20).
Interestingly, in the Temple that might have been (that YEHOVAH God described in Ezekiel), we find that there were seven steps that led into the outer court (Ezekiel 40:22, 26); however, there were eight steps that led from the outer court to the inner court (Ezekiel 40:31, 34, 37). The first seven led from labor to rest, but the eight led from rest to intimate fellowship with YEHOVAH God and pure worship! (For more information about this Temple, send for or download Ezekiel's Temple and Sacrifices: Will Temple Sacrifices Resume in the Millennium?).
The consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests of YEHOVAH God required seven days of being set apart (Leviticus 8:35), but it was on the "eighth day" that they were anointed as "priests," thus beginning a "new" ministry and office before YEHOVAH God and the people.
David was the "eighth" son of Jesse, thus also beginning a "new dynasty" in Israel when he became king (I Samuel 16:10-11; II Samuel 17:12).
In the words of the Epistle of Barnabas, YEHOVAH God declares that "after I have set everything at rest, I will create the beginning of an eighth day, which is the beginning of another world" (15.8).
Bullinger adds concerning the significance of this number "8":
"It is 7 plus 1. Hence it is the number specially associated with Resurrection and Regeneration [the Messiah was resurrected on the "eighth" day, or the first day of the week], and the BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA OR ORDER.
"When the whole earth was covered with a flood, it was Noah 'the eighth person' (II Peter 2:5) who stepped out on to a new earth to commence a new order of things. 'Eight souls' (I Peter 3:20) passed through it with him to the new or regenerated world.
"Hence, too, circumcision was to be performed on the EIGHTH DAY (Genesis 17:12)....The first-born was to be given to Jehovah on the eighth day (Exodus 22:29-30).
This makes Adam's DNA line a chosen and special people from whom the Last Adam (the Messiah) would come!
What About the Number Six?
In the Bible, the number six symbolizes mankind and human weakness, the evils of Satan and the manifestation of sin. Mankind (the non-Adamic races) was created on the sixth day or period. Men are appointed six days to labor.
The bringing together of three 6's is the number and mark of the end time Beast of Revelation. As such, it represents the very best system of governance that mankind can produce WITHOUT YEHOVAH God's spirit and under the constant influence of Satan. Man's system on earth is made up of three parts (economic, religious and governmental) all of which are influenced and led by Satan.
Mankind (all the other races aside from the Adamic) were created on the sixth day or period and this first occurrence of the number in the Bible makes it (and all multiples of it) the hall-mark of all connected with mankind. The hours of his day are a multiple of six. Athaliah usurped the throne of Judah six years. The men of renown who stood out in defiance of YEHOVAH God (Goliath, Nebuchadnezzar and the Antichrist for example) are all emphatically marked by this number. So knowing and understanding the generations of Adam and of the races created on the sixth day or period is very important. Without YEHOVAH's spirit, mankind of the sixth-day creation can never get it right -- or even understand the truth of YEHOVAH God -- because they are truly "the vessel prepared for destruction" (Romans 9:20-23).
Order of Events
Before we go any further, let's review the order of the creation of physical life on earth to this point:
(1) First came the trees, grass and plant life after dry land had appeared -- on the third day or period.
(2) Second in the order YEHOVAH God created the beasts of the field -- or the wild animals on the sixth day or period.
(3) Third in the order of creation came male and female -- all the races of man except for Adam ('eth Ha-'Adam). This was also done on the sixth "day." This is what is referred to as the Sixth Day Creation. We noted that both male and female were created at the SAME TIME on this day or period after all the animals are created. We also noted that Adam and Eve are NOT YET on the scene -- they will not be mentioned by name until chapter two. The people created on this sixth "day" are all the separate races. All the distinct and diverse races were created at this time. YEHOVAH God created the differences in the races and made them just the way He wanted them to be.
(4) Fourth in the order of YEHOVAH's creation was the time on the seventh day or period for rest. After the mass creation of peoples on the sixth day or period YEHOVAH God rested on the seventh.
(5) Fifth in the order of YEHOVAH's creation -- on the eighth "day" (or a time beyond) -- YEHOVAH God formed Adam ('eth Ha-'Adam) to till the soil.
(6) The last order of the creation to this point is the creation of all domestic animals for the use by Adam -- and his naming of them.
Although the races had their male and female counterparts in Genesis 1:26-27, YEHOVAH God has only given the domestic animals -- and NO wife -- to Adam! There are two things to be aware of here: (1) The phrase "there was NOT FOUND a helper [counterpart, companion] comparable to him [Adam -- Genesis 2:20]" suggests that YEHOVAH God went looking for a counterpart for Adam but could not find one. This begs the question: If Adam was the first created human being -- where in the world did YEHOVAH God go looking? The only way this phrase makes any sense is if human beings had previously been created -- both male and female -- on the sixth day of creation! Otherwise YEHOVAH God was wasting His time looking! (2) The fact that YEHOVAH God could not find a counterpart (companion) for Adam among the previously created human beings indicates that YEHOVAH never intended for the mixing of the races. This is why "there was not found" a wife for Adam.
There is no documentation that spells out in detail the exact method of YEHOVAH's creation for the other races -- so whatever is said is pure speculation.
What About Eve?
Let's take a look at the verses that document that Eve was taken from Adam, and that it was a special event not common to the creation of women in Genesis One:
"And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and He [YEHOVAH God] took one of his [Adam's] ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made He A WOMAN, and He brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man" (Genesis 2:21-23, KJV)
In the above verses from Genesis Two "A WOMAN" in verse 22 has an Article. In the Hebrew this woman (Eve) is la'ishaah -- but a woman in general (especially from the sixth-day creation) is simply ishaah. In other words, this particular woman Eve was made by YEHOVAH God OUT OF Adam -- not that all women were made this way. This further strengthens the argument that the sixth-day creation and the eighth-day forming were totally different events -- for in the sixth day we see that "...male and female CREATED He them" (Genesis 1:27) but here in the eighth day we see that "...the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, MADE He a woman..." (Genesis 2:22).
Now with the Articles and Particles shown -- which are not visible in the English language translation, we have:
"...the [the (Particle)] rib, which the LORD God had taken from [the (Article)] man, made He a [the (Article)] woman..." (Genesis 2:22).
For more clarity this can be rendered, in English, as: "...this rib, which the LORD God had taken from that man, made He this woman..." This was a special event -- no other woman was made from any other man by any other ribs. Eve was from Adam, but ALL other women were created at the SAME TIME alongside the other men in the sixth "day" of YEHOVAH's Creation. There is no way that this Genesis chapter two event regarding Eve can be construed as simply a further explanation of all the women being created in Genesis chapter one. This is an entirely different event with its own peculiarities.
Eve is MADE (Hebrew word #1129) from Adam in Genesis 2:22. The reason for Adam and Eve being singled out from the creation of the rest of mankind is because through Eve the Messiah would eventually be born four thousand years later. The Bible, therefore, is basically the story of one man's family and the people they come into contact with throughout history. In other words -- it is the history of the Adams family through which the Messiah would come. Through the sacrifice of the Messiah on the tree, all Israelites from out of all the nations can be grafted into the eternal family of YEHOVAH God!
Eve was the "mother of all living" with YEHOVAH's breath -- not of the others. This indicates that there are those with the spirit, and those "having not the Spirit" -- (Jude v. 19). The latter is the "natural man" who “cannot receive the things of God” -- (1 Corinthians 2:14), but he may become very religious. What we believe about these issues in Genesis conditions what we believe right through the Bible.
The Proof of the Toledoth
Moses did not write the Book of Genesis but instead compiled it from other documents that were available to him since the events described in the book occurred long before his time. It was commonplace in the ancient world to write a "colophon" at the end of a document, identifying the author, and sometimes the date and place when it was written. Colophons have been found on stone tablets belonging to ancient Babylon -- and they are the equivalent of the modern-day title page that appears at the beginning of a book.
The colophons in the Book of Genesis all have a similar form such as "This the book of the generations of Adam," or "These are the generations of Noah." The Hebrew word "toledoth" is consistently used -- which means "generations," "origins" or "histories" -- and then there is the name of the person who is signing off this section of the history. In some cases it is followed by a list of his descendants, and this has led some commentators to believe that the "toledoth" phrase is an introduction to a genealogical list. However, there is not always a genealogy, and the regular repetition of the "toledoth" phrase indicates that it is genuinely a signing-off phrase and NOT an introduction.
In the light of these findings, it is apparent that the toledoth verses belong to what precedes them. This means that Genesis 1:1 to 2:4a would have appeared on one tablet or set of tablets, according to how many tablets there were. The subscript is then distinctly separate from the following passage, and the narrative before the colophon would be called "The Origin(s) of the Universe" in modern terms. This set of tablets is then followed by a second set, notably starting the narrative with "the earth and the heavens", where the center of attention is the earth itself rather than the universe, as the different order of words indicates.
Ancient Middle East records were produced on clay tablets using a metal or wood stylus which made wedge-shaped indentations on the damp clay. The tablets were then either sun-dried or baked for permanent storage. These tablets would be strung together to make continuous narratives or official records. Moses was very reliable and faithful in not changing the old tablets handed down to him. He left them, as far as reasonable, in their original textual state, with all the awkward joints visible. He knew he was dealing with a sacred set of documents, and beyond translating, he made no changes.
A Typical Babylonian Clay Tablet
The Babylonian system enabled the ancient peoples to make multiple copies. Once impressed, all you had to do was to produce another slab of soft clay and take a reverse impression, then a third slab placed over the second one after it had dried, would produce on the third a copy of the first one. A simple copying machine!
Someone like Adam could have made a set or sets and passed them on to Noah within three generations. These could then go via Noah’s three sons down the patriarchal line to Terah. Terah would make his own tablet and pass everything on to his sons. Abram would get a copy, or maybe he asked for a copy?
The next set belonged to or was written by Isaac. But after Jacob had put together his set, the family went into Egypt and the system would most probably change to papyrus rolls. However, it is still possible that there is a colophon to the last set of records. If you read Exodus 1:1-5, it reminds us dimly of the style of the colophon, though the word toledoth is missing.
As a result, we are able to identify eleven such "histories" in Genesis by these colophons that conclude them. However, writers disagree as to the number of self-contained segments that go to make up Genesis, though they are not divided as to the actual number of toledoth dividers present. There are 11 mentions of toledoth, but the Ishmael one and the two from Esau are encapsulated within those of Isaac and Jacob respectively. One could make of this a total of 12 passages, but I have regarded those of Ishmael and Esau as parts of their brothers’ records.
Extent of Passage
|(1) Genesis 1:1 to 2:3||The History of Heaven
|When created; creation of the races
with the exception of the line of Adam; written by
|(2) Genesis 2:4b to 4:26||The History of Adam||Special creation of Adam and Eve;
of Adam; written by Adam
|(3) Genesis 5:3 to 6:8||The History of Noah||Written by Noah|
|(4) Genesis 6:9b to 9:29||The History of
|They had sons after the Deluge|
|(5) Genesis 10:2 to 11:9||The History of Shem||Shem 100, father of Arphaxad; written by Shem|
|(6) Genesis 11:11 to 11:26||The History of Terah||Terah had
three sons in Ur of the Chaldeans;
Haran died; written by Terah
|(7) Genesis 11:29 to 25:18||The History of Isaac
|Isaac 40, married Rebekah; written
by Isaac and
|(8) Genesis 25:21 to 36:43||The History of Jacob
|Jacob still in Canaan; written by Jacob and Esau|
|(9) Genesis 37:2b to 50:26||?The History of the
Sons of Israel
|Joseph dies and is buried|
The Toledoth-Divided Passages in
with Toledoth Names and Details
The very first record shows no writer’s or owner’s name, apart from the significant expression, "when they were created", which suggests that this set of tablets only concerned YEHOVAH’s work in creation. The title of this record is taken from the opening words, "In the Beginning", for this is how records were referred to in those days, it seems. At any rate, the Jews still call Genesis "In the Beginning". The word "Genesis" is taken from the Greek form of the Hebrew word toledoth, which is geneseis, the plural of genesis.
Now this brings us to the point of this discussion -- if the human creation event of Genesis One, and the forming of Adam in Genesis Two were both a record of the same event, why weren't they combined and recorded on one or other of the tablets -- either on "The History of Heaven and Earth" tablet written by YEHOVAH God, or on "The History of Adam" tablet written by Adam himself? So Moses had in his possession (along with all the others) the first tablet containing the record of the re-creation of the earth along with the creation of mankind; and the second tablet detailing the special formation of Adam and Eve and a history of their immediate posterity. Clearly, then, these are TWO DIFFERENT EVENTS recorded on two different tablets.
Two thousand years ago Philo the Jew (c. 20-10 B.C. to at least A.D. 40) understood about the two events when he wrote:
"And at all events he [Moses, in the tablets of Genesis] desires to show that THE RACES OF MORTALS, and also of all THE IMMORTAL BEINGS, exist according to their appropriate numbers; measuring MORTAL BEINGS [those of the sixth-day creation], as I have said, by the number six, and the blessed and IMMORTAL BEINGS [those descended from Adam] by the number seven. First, therefore, having desisted from the CREATION OF MORTAL CREATURES on the seventh day, He [YEHOVAH God] began the FORMATION OF OTHER and more divine beings [Adam and Eve]" (The Works of Philo, translated by C. D. Yonge. "Allegorical Interpretation, I," II (4-5)).
Philo also posits -- in "Allegorical Interpretation, I" --
"But some may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind [that of Adam], which was wholly devoted to the body, WORTHY OF DIVINE INSPIRATION, and yet did NOT treat the one made after His own idea and image [that of the sixth-day creation] in the same manner" (ibid., XIII (33)).
Where Did Cain Get His Wife?
Probably one of the most frequent questions asked by Christians and non-Christians alike is where did Cain get his wife from? This also raises a larger question: what population existed at the time Cain built his city -- and what of incest? We read in Genesis 4:14-15 after Cain murdered Abel and was banished by YEHOVAH God:
"Surely You have driven me out this day from the face of the ground; I shall be hidden from Your face; I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond on the earth, and it will happen THAT ANYONE WHO FINDS ME WILL KILL ME.
"And the LORD said to him, 'Therefore, WHOEVER KILLS CAIN, VENGEANCE SHALL BE TAKEN ON HIM sevenfold." And the LORD set a mark on Cain, LEST ANYONE FINDING HIM SHOULD KILL HIM."
This, of course, begs the question: If Adam, Eve and Cain were the only human beings on the face of the planet at that time -- WHO might find and kill Cain? Who is the "ANYONE" who might find him? Then, in verse 17, we find:
"And CAIN KNEW HIS WIFE, and she conceived and bore Enoch. And he [Cain] BUILT A CITY, and called the name of the city after the name of his son -- Enoch."
The stock in trade answers to these questions simply do not satisfy and are forced in many instances, to say the lest. Here are some examples:
"The logical answer to 'who was Cain's wife?' is that Cain married one of his sisters. God's prohibition against marriage between close relatives came many centuries later (Leviticus 18)" (United Church of God website).
"It has been shown that the Bible's claim that Cain, the first offspring of Adam and Eve, could have found a wife is found to be plausible if he had chosen among one of his sisters (and he probably had already done so before he murdered Abel). Since there seems to have been at least 100 years between the birth of Cain and the death of Abel, Adam and Eve would have had plenty of time to produce daughters for Cain to choose from. Brothers and sisters marrying seems to be a theological problem, since the Bible is quite clear that one should not marry a close relative. However, the Jewish laws were not instituted until thousands of years later, so there would have been no prohibition against such marriages at that time" (Rich Deem, www.godandscience.org).
"One such theory that has been put forth to explain the existence of sufficient numbers of people is directly contradictory to Scripture and posits a 'pre-Adamic' race dwelling in the neighborhood of the Garden of Eden from which Cain could take a wife. This is not a tenable solution, however, for the Scriptures clearly teach that Adam was the first man (I Corinthians 15:45) and that his wife, Eve, was 'the mother of all the living' (Genesis 3:20, NASB). Genesis 5:4 tells us that Adam had sons and daughters. At first, sons and daughters of Adam and Eve had to marry each other to populate the earth. Cain probably marries a sister or niece or great niece....
"All this raises the additional question of incest. If incest is scripturally forbidden, according to Mosaic law, how do we explain all this marrying of siblings? Since Adam and Eve were created directly by God, and perfect, it can be presumed that their genes were perfect....
"Moreover, in addition to the biological problem which arises from incest, there is also an ethical one. God forbids incest on moral grounds, and this is more crucial than the biological aspect (Leviticus 20:11ff). Incest disrupts the family social and moral structure. The family is the only God-ordained institution in the world other than the church. At the initial formation of the family structure in Cain's day, it is difficult to presume what happened with inter-marriage. Thus we cannot be sure to what extent incest occurred. One thing is certain: after God's ordained family structure stabilized, incest was sin" ("Answers to Tough Questions," p. 187. www.josh.org).
In answer to these opinions above, I would like to make the following comments:
(1) First off -- YEHOVAH God NEVER changes! (Malachi 3:6). To say that at one time He condones incest but at another bans and condemns the practice is to call YEHOVAH God a liar!
Since it is clear that the creation of mankind was an earlier event to the formation of Adam and Eve, then Cain had more than one option -- he could have married a woman from the sixth-day creation event, and not necessarily a sister. The fact of the two separate beginnings of humankind is confirmed in Genesis 6:1-2, 4 where we read: "Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the land [eretz -- land, earth], and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God [the posterity of Adam] saw the daughters of men [those of the sixth-day creation], that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose...and also afterward, when the sons of God [Adam's posterity] came in to the daughters of men [those women descended from the sixth-day creation] and they bore children to them." (We will cover this in more detail later in the article). So marriages between the two groups of humankind was common at an early time and an affront to YEHOVAH God.
(2) The so-called "Jewish laws" mentioned by Rich Deem above were, in fact, YEHOVAH God's laws for all of the Israelites and, while they were codified "thousands of years later," they were in effect much earlier. For example the Sabbath day, part of the codified law in Leviticus (19:3; 30 etc.), was instituted at the very beginning (Genesis 2:2-3). This is also true of the food laws found in Leviticus 11. We find that Noah observed these laws in Genesis 7:2, so clearly these laws also evidently go back to the beginning. To claim that these laws "were not instituted until thousands of years later" is simply not true -- and this includes the sexual laws found in Leviticus 18.
(3) The Scriptures do NOT "clearly teach that Adam was the first man (1 Corinthians 15:45)"! While Adam was the first "spiritual" man formed -- he was not the first "physical" man created. This we find mentioned in Genesis 1:26-27. In 1 Corinthians 15:45, the Greek word [πρωτος] that has been translated into English as "first" does NOT mean first in time but first in pre-eminence. According to A Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament by W. C. Taylor, the Greek word πρωτος means first, chief, principal. Therefore 1 Corinthians 15:45 is better translated, "And so it is written, 'The chief [or principal] man Adam became a living being'."
The reference to Eve as "the mother of all the living" does NOT mean that she was the first woman in time but that through her would come Yeshua the Messiah -- and through his sacrifice all the Israelites called by YEHOVAH God could live eternally. Thus she would be "the mother of all the [eternally] living" Israelites.
(4) Once again, it was YEHOVAH's law -- not "according to Mosaic law"!
From this we can see that there is no problem about where Cain found a wife; it was from amongst those who were not "living souls".
The Breath of Life
The most important difference between the mankind of
Genesis 1:26 and Adam in Genesis 2:7 is that Adam received the Breath of
YEHOVAH God in his nostrils. Later, when the procreative power of Abram and
Sara was regenerated, the spirit of YEHOVAH God was embedded in their genes
-- memorialized by the addition of the fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet
to their names. Salvation requires that the individual believes YEHOVAH God
and that belief is a function of the indwelling spirit, NOT of the
natural flesh -- as the Messiah said to Nicodemus "what is spirit is
spirit." Hence there was no point in the Messiah dying for people who do not
have the indwelling spirit and hence no ability to comprehend and believe
the things of the spirit. From this sequence alone there is no
way Genesis 2 could be a re-run of Genesis 1. Some take the view that, on a
weight of evidence basis, there is more to say that Adam (as we use the
word) was the first spiritual man, but not the first biological man. In
other words, YEHOVAH God took one man from Genesis 1 and breathed into him
the breath of life. “And man became a living soul” -- (Genesis 2:7). The
word “became” is consistently used in a manner showing that the subject
became something that it had not been before. Philo the Jew understood the spiritual
component of "the Breath of life" when he wrote: "But he [Moses] asserts that the FORMATION of
the individual man [Adam], perceptible by the external senses is A
COMPOSITION OF EARTHY SUBSTANCE, AND DIVINE SPIRIT. For that body [of Adam]
was created by the Creator [YEHOVAH God] taking a lump of clay, and
fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from NO
created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things.
he [Moses] uses the expression, 'He breathed into,' etc., he [Moses] MEANS
NOTHING ELSE THAN THE DIVINE SPIRIT proceeding from that happy and blessed
nature [YEHOVAH God], sent to take up its habitation here on earth [in Adam
and his descendants], FOR THE ADVANTAGE OF OUR [ISRAELITE] RACE, in order
that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is
visible, he may at all events be [eventually] IMMORTAL according to that
portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that
man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature [after the
resurrection], partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that
he [man -- descendants of Adam -- Israelites] was born at the same time,
both mortal and immortal.
"Mortal as to his body, but immortal
[eventually] as to his intellect" (The Works of Philo,
translated by C. D. Yonge. "On the Creation, XLVI (134-135)). Continuing in his discussion of the
Breath of Life, Philo makes the following comments: "...for there must be three
things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is
breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which
breathes in IS GOD, that which receives what is breathed in is THE MIND
[of Adam], and that which is breathed in is THE SPIRIT. What then is
collected from these three things? A UNION OF THREE takes place, through
God extending THE POWER, which proceeds from Himself THROUGH THE SPIRIT,
which is the middle term, as far as the subject.
"Why does He [YEHOVAH God] do
this, except that we may thus derive A PROPER NOTION [idea, belief] of
Him? Since HOW could the soul have perceived God if He [YEHOVAH God] had
not inspired it, and touched it according to His power? For human
intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay
claim to THE NATURE OF GOD, if God Himself had not drawn it up to
Himself, as far as was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and
if He had not FORMED it according to those powers which can be
comprehended" (ibid., "Allegorical Interpretation, I, XIII
The most important difference between the mankind of Genesis 1:26 and Adam in Genesis 2:7 is that Adam received the Breath of YEHOVAH God in his nostrils. Later, when the procreative power of Abram and Sara was regenerated, the spirit of YEHOVAH God was embedded in their genes -- memorialized by the addition of the fifth letter of the Hebrew alphabet to their names. Salvation requires that the individual believes YEHOVAH God and that belief is a function of the indwelling spirit, NOT of the natural flesh -- as the Messiah said to Nicodemus "what is spirit is spirit." Hence there was no point in the Messiah dying for people who do not have the indwelling spirit and hence no ability to comprehend and believe the things of the spirit.
From this sequence alone there is no way Genesis 2 could be a re-run of Genesis 1. Some take the view that, on a weight of evidence basis, there is more to say that Adam (as we use the word) was the first spiritual man, but not the first biological man. In other words, YEHOVAH God took one man from Genesis 1 and breathed into him the breath of life. “And man became a living soul” -- (Genesis 2:7). The word “became” is consistently used in a manner showing that the subject became something that it had not been before.
Philo the Jew understood the spiritual component of "the Breath of life" when he wrote:
"But he [Moses] asserts that the FORMATION of the individual man [Adam], perceptible by the external senses is A COMPOSITION OF EARTHY SUBSTANCE, AND DIVINE SPIRIT. For that body [of Adam] was created by the Creator [YEHOVAH God] taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from NO created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things.
"For when he [Moses] uses the expression, 'He breathed into,' etc., he [Moses] MEANS NOTHING ELSE THAN THE DIVINE SPIRIT proceeding from that happy and blessed nature [YEHOVAH God], sent to take up its habitation here on earth [in Adam and his descendants], FOR THE ADVANTAGE OF OUR [ISRAELITE] RACE, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be [eventually] IMMORTAL according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature [after the resurrection], partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he [man -- descendants of Adam -- Israelites] was born at the same time, both mortal and immortal.
"Mortal as to his body, but immortal [eventually] as to his intellect" (The Works of Philo, translated by C. D. Yonge. "On the Creation, XLVI (134-135)).
Continuing in his discussion of the Breath of Life, Philo makes the following comments:
"...for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in IS GOD, that which receives what is breathed in is THE MIND [of Adam], and that which is breathed in is THE SPIRIT. What then is collected from these three things? A UNION OF THREE takes place, through God extending THE POWER, which proceeds from Himself THROUGH THE SPIRIT, which is the middle term, as far as the subject.
"Why does He [YEHOVAH God] do this, except that we may thus derive A PROPER NOTION [idea, belief] of Him? Since HOW could the soul have perceived God if He [YEHOVAH God] had not inspired it, and touched it according to His power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to THE NATURE OF GOD, if God Himself had not drawn it up to Himself, as far as was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if He had not FORMED it according to those powers which can be comprehended" (ibid., "Allegorical Interpretation, I, XIII (37-38))
From Adam to Abraham, Adam’s pure line contained the breath of spiritual life (see Job 33:4), so where did the people come from who did not have the breath of life? These men and women originated from Genesis 1. Through misgenerative activity -- (i.e. race mixing) -- racial pollution was introduced to the bloodstream of the sons of Adam, and we find that YEHOVAH God sought to eliminate the products of such activity. Noah was “pure in his generations” (Genesis 6:9), and so he and his unmixed family were preserved. Later, the Children of Israel were to destroy the mixed breed of the Canaanites. These could not receive the things of the spirit of YEHOVAH God. They could not witness in their spirit and say, "the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of God" (Romans 8:16), as an Israelite is able to do. This principle is a continuing theme in the Bible.
Through Abraham and Sarah, YEHOVAH God established the basis for Abraham’s seed to become the Sons of YEHOVAH God (John 1:12). YEHOVAH was making a new beginning with Abraham. None other than the seed of Abraham, through the son of promise, Isaac, has this opportunity or potential. Abraham’s seven other sons did not have this potential -- because they were born prior to Isaac. The descendants of Isaac were begotten of the spirit from their conception. This is why those among Isaac’s descendants who believe are regarded as being anointed by the spirit (Galatians 3:16).
Paul is able to declare, "now He which stablishes us with you in Christ, and has anointed us is God who has also sealed us and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts" (2 Corinthians 1:21, 22). In 1 Corinthians 2:7-16 Paul, confirming this, tells the brethren (kinsmen of the same womb of Sarah) that they have not received the spirit of the world, but the spirit of YEHOVAH God (verse 12). He says that through this we might know (or comprehend) the things that are freely given to us, (the brethren), of YEHOVAH God. He goes on to further declare that the “natural” man (those not born of Isaac’s line) cannot receive the things of the spirit of YEHOVAH God. He affirms Yeshua’s statement that anyone who is not begotten of the original sowing (in the womb of Sarah) cannot see the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God.
1 John 2:27: "But the anointing which you have received abideth in you,"
1 John 3:9: "Whosoever is born of God doth not commit [practice] sin, for his seed remaineth in him:"
1 John 5:18: "We know that whosoever is born of God sinneth not;"
There is this relationship between the “anointing”, the right “seed”, and being begotten of YEHOVAH God.
Few texts in the history of Bible interpretation have aroused more curiosity, animosity and divergence of opinion than Genesis 6:1-4. It is at once tantalizing and deeply puzzling to those drawn to its web.
"Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose. And the LORD said, 'My spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.' There were giants on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown" (NKJV).
What is the most difficult and contentious is the identification of the main participants in this short passage -- the "sons of God," the "daughters of men" and the "Nephilim" (or "giants"). Down through the ages an impressive array of scholars has backed up each of the three major positions taken on the identification of these three groups of participants. The three major positions are as follow:
(1) The cosmologically mixed races view (angels and humans).
(2) The religiously mixed races view (godly Sethites and worldly Cainites).
(3) The sociologically mixed races view (despotic male aristocrats and beautiful female commoners.
By all odds, the view that may perhaps claim the greatest antiquity is the cosmologically mixed races -- or the angel theory -- view. This view has been stretched to the limits of the bizarre by many commentators and authors, such as Stephen Quayle, in his book Genesis 6 Giants: Master Builders of Prehistoric and Ancient Civilizations. He jumps into the realm of the bizarre and without hesitation makes the following pronouncements:
'There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men...'
"Obviously, the 'daughters of men' were simply human women. But who were the 'sons of God'? And who -- or what -- were the giants and 'mighty men' who were the offspring of the sons of God and daughters of men?...One explanation fits this scripture passage perfectly. Not surprisingly, it was also accepted as truth by ancient Jewish scholars. It becomes apparent with careful study of the scriptures as well.
"This view maintains that the 'sons of God' are angels. As creatures of God, these creatures (like mankind) bear a family relationship in that they were created by God and, therefore, can be viewed in a sense as being His sons. Not only that, this interpretation explains why all the human beings involved are female while all the male figures are called the 'sons of God.' The reason is that angels are always referred to as being males....
"The Nephilim that were produced by the angel/mankind marriage were much different from either of their parents. This, too, went against God's plan for the Earth in which each animal and human being was to reproduce 'after its own kind.' This is perhaps the best demonstration that the parents of these creatures were not simply descendants of Cain and Seth. Had they been, they would have produced human offspring, rather than the Nephilim....
"A careful study of the first introduction of this word in Genesis also shows that the Nephilim have appeared more than one time in history. The verses don't say that the first account was the only time this occurred. Rather,
"Notice that there were giants 'in those days' and 'also after that' time as well. Since the giants could only be coming from the sons of God interbreeding with the daughters of men, and since God wiped out the first instance of this with the Great Flood, this would have to mean that such couplings have occurred more than just once before the flood" (End Time Thunder Publishers, Bozeman, MT 2009, pages 120-121, 128 and 130-131).
According to the book Hard Sayings of the Bible, by Kaiser, Davids, Bruce and Brauch:
"...there are such overwhelming problems with it [the angel theory] that it is not recommended as the solution to this problem. While it is true, of course, that the term 'sons of God' does occur in Job 1:6, 2:1 and 38:7 with the meaning 'angels' (and that the phrase 'sons of the Mighty' appears in Ps. 29:1 and 89:7 with the meaning 'angels'), it does not fit well here for several reasons.
"Nowhere else in Scripture are we told that angels married humans. In fact, our Lord specifically stated that angels DO NOT marry (Mk. 12:25). And though the Septuagint translated the expression as being equivalent to 'angels,' it is in fact only the Alexandrian manuscript that does so. The critical edition by Alfred Rahlfs does not reflect the angelic interpretation.
"Even more serious is the problem of why judgment should fall on the humans and on the earth if the angels of heaven were the cause of the troubles. God should have flooded heaven, not the earth. The culprits came from above; the women seem to have been doing nothing except being beautiful!...
"To allege that 'giants' were the results of such sexual unions is once again to go beyond any data we possess in Scripture. Did the angels procreate without the use of natural bodies? Or did they already possess natural bodies? Or did they create for themselves natural bodies by the use of some mysterious, intrinsic, but rebellious power? Any and all answers to such questions would be purely speculative" (InterVarsity Press, Downes Grove, Illinois, pages 106-107).
"Purely speculative" indeed! Linking the Nephilim to the result of unions between angels and human women is highly speculative and has, in fact, no basis in Scripture. A different rendering of Genesis 6:1-4 by Ferrar Fenton shows just how speculative this notion is:
"But when corrupt Men increased upon the surface of the Earth, and sons and daughters were born to them, then the sons of God admired the daughters of Men who were beautiful, and they took to themselves wives from all they desired. Consequently the EVER-LIVING said 'My spirit shall not call to man for ever, for he is sinful flesh, but they shall have a hundred and twenty years.' The Nephalim were upon the earth in those days, and ALSO AFTERWARDS when the sons of God came to the daughters of man, and they [the sons of God] bore to them [the daughters of man] mighty men, who were men of renown of old" (The Bible in Modern English, "The Five Books of Moses," 1901).
This rendition clearly states that the Nephilim were alive (on the earth) BEFORE the union of "the sons of God" and "the daughters of Men" -- therefore the Nephilim could NOT have been the result of this union! The offspring of this union were the "mighty men, who were men of renown of old" -- totally different people to the Nephilim. The phrase "The Nephalim were upon the earth in those days, and also afterwards when the sons of God came to the daughters of man" is a interjectory statement similar in style to numerous other ones found in the Bible.
Now, regarding the other two views of this Genesis passage (religiously mixed races and the sociologically mixed races) the Bible dictionary Insight On the Scriptures has this to say:
"Many commentators hold that these 'sons of God' were themselves human [so far, so good!] being in reality men of the line of Seth [oops, heading into the ditch!]. They base their argument on the fact that Seth's line was that through which godly Noah came, whereas the other lines from Adam, that of Cain and those of any other sons born to Adam (Ge 5:3, 4), were destroyed at the Flood. So, they say that the taking as wives 'the daughters of men' by 'the sons of the true God' means that Sethites began to marry into the line of wicked Cain....Corroborating Scriptural evidence is LACKING to support the view that intermarriage between the lines of Seth and Cain is what is here meant..." (Vol. 2, "Son(s) of God," p. 996).
Amen to that!
The last of the three views, that of the sociologically mixed races, while favored by many commentators, is a stretch and totally unnecessary when the truth about the two lines of Genesis 1 and 2 is understood. All the bizarre theories about angels marrying the daughters of men and producing hybrids that dominated the people of the time is based on nothing more than Greek and Roman mythology -- and probably Babylonian mythology before that!
If we take Genesis 6:1-4 again and correctly identify the people mentioned, we come up with the following:
Now it came to pass, when [non-Adamic, sixth-day creation, Paul's 'vessels of dishonor'] men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God [the Adamic forming of the eighth day, Paul's 'vessels of honor'] saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose. And the LORD said, 'My spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.' There were giants on the earth in those days, and also afterward [an interjection, not related to the children born to the daughters of men and the sons of God], when the sons of God [line of Adam] came in to the daughters of men [line from sixth day creation] and they bore children to them. Those [the offspring from this union] were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown [not the Nephilim or giants]" (NKJV).
This has been a particular problem with the line of Adam, and YEHOVAH God had to admonish the Israelites time, and time again, about marrying into the non-Israelite races descended from the sixth day creation. We see here that the problem started out very early in the Bible narrative.
From the weight of all the evidence we have reviewed it seems that Adam was the first SPIRITUAL man -- but NOT the first biological man. In other words, YEHOVAH God took one man from Genesis One and breathed into him the breath of life. "And man BECAME a living soul" (Genesis 2:7). The word "became" is consistently used in a manner showing that the subject became something that it had not been before. This indicates that there were those with the spirit (the vessels of honor) and those "having NOT the spirit" (the vessels of dishonor) (Jude 19). The latter is the "natural man" who "CANNOT receive the things of God" (1 Corinthians 2:14).
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