Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
Where in Jerusalem Were the Disciples Assembled On Pentecost?
Most people believe the disciples were assembled in the “upper room” when the holy spirit of YEHOVAH God descended upon them during that Pentecost of 31 A.D. But how could the various prophecies found in Ezekiel, Joel and Zechariah be fulfilled if this were true? An in-depth study of the New Testament reveals the TRUE assembling place for the early church during those eventful times.
John D. Keyser
Since the events surrounding the day of Pentecost in 31 A.D. are of the greatest significance, it is a matter of much interest to determine just where, in the city of Jerusalem, Yeshua’s disciples were assembled when the holy spirit of YEHOVAH God descended upon them.
Most authorities claim the disciples were assembled in “the upper room” in Jerusalem. Notice –
"It was on the day of Pentecost that the holy spirit was poured out by Jesus Christ on the group of about 120 disciples in the upper room at Jerusalem..." (Insight On the Scriptures, Volume 2, page 599).
Samuele Bacchiocchi, in his book God’s Festivals in Scripture and History, states the following:
"The Jewish pilgrimage feast of Pentecost gained new significance for Christians because it coincided with the birthday of the Church as an institution. On that day, the Holy Spirit baptized 120 disciples of Jesus as they awaited His coming in an upper room (Luke 24:53)" (Part 1 -- The Spring Festivals, page 189).
J. W. Taylor takes this hypothesis a step further by describing this “upper room” in great detail –
"But even in Jerusalem itself there was one house which can be identified as having afforded shelter to our Lord and His disciples. This was the house of the “upper chamber” and the Last Supper, and appears to have been visited by Christ both before and after the crucifixion. In it He not only ate the Passover with His disciples and instituted the Eucharist feast, but later, after His Passion, it was in this house where the disciples were assembled when 'the doors were shut for fear of the Jews' that Jesus came and stood in their midst saying, 'Peace be unto you: as My Father hath sent Me, even so send I you.'
"This house of the Last Supper and of the great Commission is said to have belonged to the father and mother of St. Mark, and Barnabas his uncle (Col. 5:10), probably resided with them when he was in Jerusalem. After the crucifixion and ascension it became the general gathering-place of the disciples. All waited here in prayer until the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost, and it was probably in its courtyard or outside it that St. Peter preached his Pentecostal sermon. We are told that it was situated on Mount Zion, and Epiphanius records that it escaped the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, and that it was afterwards changed into a church....'Besides being described by Epiphanius, it is spoken of by St. Cyril and St. Jerome, and it has been kept in reverent memory ever since'” (Biggs, p. 173) (The Coming of the Saints, pages 41-42).
In the May/June 1990 issue of the Biblical Archaeology Review is found an article entitled “Church of the Apostles Found On Mt. Zion” which purports to prove that the site of the “upper room,” which the author claims was where “the Last Supper had been held, where the apostles returned after witnessing Jesus’ ascension on the Mount of Olives and where Peter delivered his Pentecostal sermon as recorded in Acts 2” is now marked by the supposed traditional tomb of King David on Mt. Zion.
Bishop Epiphanius (mentioned above), who was a native of the Holy Land and lived from 315 to 403 A.D., left to us the following information:
"When the Roman emperor Hadrian visited Jerusalem in 130/131 A.D., there was standing on Mt. Zion a small church of God. It marked the site of the Hypero-on (Upper Room) to which the disciples returned from the Mount of Olives after the Lord had been taken up. It had been built on that part of Sion” (Baldi, Enchiridion, number 733).
This same site is referred to by the early church father Eusebius (265-349) who makes these claims –
"This is the word of the Gospel, which through our Lord Jesus Christ and through the Apostles went out from Sion and was spread to every nation. It is a fact that it poured forth from Jerusalem and Mt. Sion adjacent to it, on which our Savior and Lord had stayed many times and where he had taught much doctrine" (Demonstratio Evangelica, c. 312 A.D.).
Another piece of so-called evidence for the place of the Pentecost outpouring comes from the pen of a man by the name of Eucherius -- who wrote in about 440 A.D. Basing his work on Jerome and other earlier sources, he wrote –
"The plain upper part [of Mt. Zion] is occupied by monks’ cells, which surround a church. Its foundations, it is said, have been laid by the Apostles in reverence to the place of the resurrection of the Lord. It was there that they were filled with the Spirit of the Paraclete [the holy spirit] as promised by the Lord" (Baldi, Enchiridion, number 735).
In 348 A.D., just a few decades after the Roman emperor Constantine declared Christianity a lawful religion, Cyril (who later became bishop of Jerusalem) delivered a famous sermon in the newly constructed basilica of the Holy Sepulcher. In the course of his address, he remarked that it would have been more appropriate to speak about the holy spirit in the very place where the Pentecost spirit descended upon the apostles -- namely “in the Upper Church of the Apostles” (Baldi, Enchiridion, number 730).
By this time the Judeo-Christian synagogue on Mt. Zion, which marked the supposed spot of the house with the “upper room,” had become known as the Church of the Apostles.
A House Built on Sand
It is often positively asserted -- as if it were a recorded fact -- that this “upper room” was “the birthplace of the Church.” However, the truth is that the historical and Biblical records offer no proof whatsoever for the idea that the disciples were gathered in an upper room when the holy spirit came upon them. Not only that, but there is no proof that the upper room mentioned in Acts 1:13 was ever their assembling place during the ten days of their staying behind in Jerusalem, in obedience to Yeshua’s command. The fact that Eucherius links this spot to the resurrection, and the fact that Cyril indicates this spot is close to the basilica of the Holy Sepulcher, engenders immediate suspicion because it can be conclusively proven that the death and Resurrection of the Messiah took place on the Mount of Olives. For more information send for our article entitled, Just Where in Jerusalem Did Our Savior Die?
All that is claimed in the Bible regarding the “upper room” is that the apostles, after witnessing Yeshua’s ascension from the Mount of Olives, returned to Jerusalem and went to an upper room where Peter, James, John and the other of the eleven apostles were living -- see Acts 1:12-13. What appears from the records -- and ALL that appears -- is that those men, during their stay in Jerusalem, had their living quarters in an “upper room.” There is no suggestion whatsoever that the living quarters of these men was also the meeting place of the 120 disciples of the Messiah who were in Jerusalem at that time. There is still less reason for supposing that the morning of the great Feast-day would have found them gathered in such a place.
The Precincts of the Temple
There was, in fact, only ONE PLACE in the city of Jerusalem where devout Jews, of whatever sect, would have congregated on that morning. And there is only ONE PLACE where the events recorded in Acts 2 could possibly have transpired. That place is the Temple. But I don’t base this conclusion on inference alone. A careful study of the Bible reveals positive proof that it was in the Temple that the holy spirit of YEHOVAH God came “suddenly” upon Yeshua’s disciples, and that from the Temple the proclamation of the Good News of the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God began to go forth into all the world! And I will show that it was the outflow of the Gospel -- “all the words of this life” (Acts 5:20) -- that was prefigured by the vision of “living waters” issuing from the Temple.
Truly, it is befitting that it should have been so. For it is in accordance with all that has been revealed to us of YEHOVAH’s order of things, and of the connection between the Old Covenant and the New, that the first outpouring of the holy spirit, as a result of prophecies and promises, should have been in the Temple -- that the beginning of the building of the spiritual House should have been on the site of the material House. Indeed, the same reasons that required that the preaching of forgiveness in the name of the risen Messiah should begin “at Jerusalem,” Luke 24:47, would seem to require also that it should begin at the Temple. So let us now ascertain whether the Biblical record gives any definite indications as to the place where the inspiring events of the first Pentecost after the Messiah’s death occurred.
“Continually in the Temple”
The first scripture that is relevant to this study is the concluding portion of Luke’s Gospel, where the Book of Acts is a continuation -- written by the same hand.
Luke here records the Messiah’s commandment to his disciples to stay back in the city of Jerusalem until they should be endued with YEHOVAH’s power from on high, Luke 24:49. The brief record of this verse does not state whether or not Yeshua designated any particular place in Jerusalem where they were to await the promised holy spirit; but the further record given in verses 52 and 53 of what they did in obedience to the Messiah’s commands, supplies us with this information. For we read that “they worshiped Him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were CONTINUALLY IN THE TEMPLE praising and blessing [YEHOVAH] God” (Luke 24:52-53).
This passage clearly declares that the Temple was the place where they assembled for the purpose of waiting upon YEHOVAH God in worship and prayer. And it furthermore declares that they were there “CONTINUALLY.” Therefore, we need nothing further to tell us just where in Jerusalem they were assembled whenever we read of their being gathered “in one place” during that period. We have the emphasis of the word “continually” -- which leaves no room for the supposition that they were assembled as a company in any other place than the Temple during the ten days that followed the Messiah’s ascension to heaven. This passage alone makes it clear that Yeshua had told them to wait in the Temple for the promised outpouring of the holy spirit.
When we consider the fact (which appears from both the Scriptures and from other contemporary records) that the Temple -- with its vast corridors or “porches” -- was the regular gathering place of all the various parties and sects of the Jews, however antagonistic to each other, it will be easy to realize that the Temple is just the place -- both because of its hallowed associations, and also because of its many convenient meeting places -- where the disciples would naturally congregate. Edersheim states that the vast Temple area was capable of containing a concourse of 210, 000 people. He also mentions that the colonnades in Solomon’s Porch formed many gathering places for the various sects, schools and congregations of the people. In commenting on John 7 Edersheim says that the gathering places in Solomon’s Porch “had benches in them; and from the liberty of speaking and teaching in Israel, Jesus might here address the people in the very face of His enemies.” It was, moreover (and this is an important item of evidence), in Solomon’s Porch that the concourse of Jews gathered which Peter addressed in Acts 3 -- see verse 11. Therefore, there can be little doubt that one of the assembling places to which Edersheim refers was the “house” where the disciples were “sitting” when the holy spirit came upon them.
When Luke continues his narrative in the Book of Acts he says, speaking of the apostles, that “These all continued (lit. were continuing) with one accord in prayer and supplications with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brethren” -- Acts 1:14. In substance we have here a repetition of what is recorded in the last verse of Luke’s Gospel -- namely that, during the ten days following the Messiah’s ascension, his disciples were “continually” together waiting upon YEHOVAH God (they “continued with one accord in prayer and supplication”). The record in Acts omits mention of the place where they so continued; but that information was not needed, seeing it had already been definitely stated in Luke 24:52-53. However, Luke adds the interesting fact that the women, and Mary the mother of Yeshua, and his brethren, were there with them. This was done, it must be remembered, by Yeshua’s express instructions. They were, of course, praying for the promised enduement from on high (Luke 11:13).
The next verse (Acts 1:15) states that “in those days (of waiting upon YEHOVAH God in the Temple) Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples and said (the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty),” -- and then follows the account of the choosing of Matthias, as an apostle and witness of the Messiah’s resurrection, in the place of Judas. Without a doubt this occurred in their accustomed gathering place in the Temple -- since they were “continually” there during those days of waiting for YEHOVAH’s holy spirit.
We should note how unlikely it is that the disciples, to the tune of 120, should (or could) be using as their gathering place the “upper room” which served the apostles for sleeping quarters.
The Day of Pentecost
Finally the day of Pentecost came, and the event of the great Feast-day would furnish an additional reason why they should be found assembled in the Temple. The services of that day -- the offering of the morning sacrifice and incense, with the accompanying prayers (in which they would have undoubtedly taken place) -- began at sunrise. This service being concluded, they would naturally be “sitting” in their usual place. It was then that “suddenly” out of heaven came that sound “as of a rushing, mighty wind.” The words “they were all with one accord in one place” (compare 1:14) indicate that they were in their customary gathering place in the Temple. Similar words found at the end of chapter 2 lend emphasis to this; for we find there the statement that, after about 3,000 souls had been “added” to them, they still continued with one accord in the Temple (verse 46). This clearly shows that what they had been doing as a small company or congregation they “continued” to do so -- still “with one accord” as an exceedingly large and growing congregation. It further shows that the place where they were gathered when YEHOVAH’s holy spirit came upon them must have been of sufficient size to accommodate 3,000 more being “added” to them; and it need hardly be mentioned that the Temple was the only building in Jerusalem open to the public, where this could have been possible.
Going over the passages again, it will be clearly seen that there is no room for doubt regarding what we have just covered. Here, again, are the passages:
1/. Luke 24:52-53. “And they worshiped Him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the Temple, praising and blessing God.”
2/. Acts 1:14. “All these were continuing with one accord in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brethren.”
This clearly must have been in the Temple, since it is impossible that they should have been “continually in the Temple” and, at the same time, should have been “continuing with one accord” in another place.
3/. Acts 2:1. “And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.”
4/. Acts 2:46. “And they, continuing daily with one accord in the Temple.”
These passages reiterate that the disciples continued, during the entire period in question, in one place -- and the first and last passages quoted clearly state that the place was the Temple.
From the last passage quoted above it plainly appears that, after Pentecost, they still made it a practice to meet “daily in the Temple,” the wording being such as to indicate that this was not a new custom from that date, but was the “continuing” of what had been their custom since the Messiah’s ascension into heaven.
The Pentecost Service
Additional information about this subject is found in Acts 2:1, when care is given to the literal meaning of this verse. As rendered in the New King James Version it reads “Now when the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.” The Greek word translated by the three English words “had fully come” (the rendering of which most certainly DOES NOT give the true sense of the word, since a day cannot be more “fully come” after it has actually come), means literally “was being accomplished” or “was being completed.” In Bagster’s Interlinear Translation the reading is: “And during the accomplishing of the day of Pentecost, they were all with one accord in the same place.”
What is implied here is that they were, as we should expect, in the Temple for the purpose of taking part in the appointed services of this great feast day. During an intermission in the ceremonies they would naturally be “sitting” together in their customary meeting-place within the Temple area. What this verse impresses upon us is that, during the accomplishing of the various ceremonies of the day of Pentecost, the disciples were not dispersed and mingled with the great crowds of worshipers, but kept together, and were with one accord in one place -- not scattered about. Therefore, it cannot be doubted that at the moment YEHOVAH’s spirit descended upon them they were all in one and the same place somewhere within the large area of the Temple -- most likely in Solomon’s Porch.
Concerning this verse, the statement that the day of Pentecost “was being accomplished” means far more than that they were observing its ritual. The meaning of Luke here is that all that was signified by that feast was finding its historic fulfillment.
With this understanding we can now see a great wealth of meaning in these few words of Scripture.
The arrival of YEHOVAH’s spirit took place some time before nine in the morning (see verse 15), just long enough for it to be “noised abroad” (2:6 -- KJV), and for an enormous crowd to gather. There would be ample time for this between the morning services and nine o’clock.
If we closely read the record of verses 1-14 it will be clearly seen that the events contained therein happened all in one and the same locality -- for there is no change of location. Wherever the disciples were when they began to speak in other (heteros -- different) languages, and where the astonished multitude assembled and listened to the first Gospel address ever preached “with the Holy Ghost come down from heaven,” that was the very same place where the YEHOVAH’s holy spirit came upon them.
Regarding the phrase “Now when this was noised abroad,” it should be realized that this is not to be taken as meaning a rumor of this tremendous event was spread abroad because the verb rendered “noised abroad” in the KJV is never used in the sense of a rumor. The truth is that the sound like a mighty wind was heard by the entire city of Jerusalem! All the devout Jews in the city would, upon hearing this supernatural sound, rush to the Temple. In this connection the force of the words of Acts 2:2 should be specially noted: “And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind (or Breath) and it filled all the house where they were sitting.”
This awe-inspiring event was foretold by the prophet Isaiah, who wrote –
"A voice of noise from the city, a voice from the temple, a voice of the Lord that rendereth recompense to His enemies. Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came she was delivered of a man child. Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? Or shall a nation be born at once? For as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children" (Isaiah 66:6-8).
The subject of this passage is the birth of another nation. Zion is represented as being in travail, and as bringing forth children. It is quite clear, therefore, that the “nation” here mentioned by the prophet is that “holy nation” of which Peter wrote in 1 Peter 2:9 -- a nation composed of all who have been “born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God” (1:23-25).
And beyond all question the “one day” foretold here is that great day of Pentecost, which was the birthday of that marvelous “nation,” the like of which had never been seen in the world before.
The predicted “noise from the city” is, of course, the “sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind” that we have just discussed. And the predicted “Voice from the temple” was fulfilled when “Peter standing up with the eleven lifted up his voice, and said unto them” -- (verse 14). When they all spoke in different languages, under the influence of YEHOVAH’s holy spirit, proclaiming the wonderful truth of the resurrection of the Messiah from the dead, then was a nation “born at once.”
Not only that, but there is a remarkable significance in the words, “Before she travailed she brought forth” -- because the earthly Zion’s real “travail” did not come upon her until 40 years later when the Roman legions destroyed Jerusalem. YEHOVAH God, in His mercy and in answer to Yeshua’s prayer on the tree for his murderers, granted a reprieve for that space of time. Those distresses, which Yeshua himself foretold -- that “great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world” (Matthew 24:21) -- were termed by him “the beginning of sorrows,” literally birth pangs (Matthew 24:8). Therefore, this prophecy of the Messiah strikingly confirmed and also helps interpret that of the prophet Isaiah.
It is important to understand that in the days surrounding Pentecost -- and for a considerable period afterwards -- the disciples were in “favor with all the people” (Acts 2:48) and were therefore permitted to enjoy, in common with all the Jewish sects and parties, the privilege of being able to assemble for all the usual purposes -- and as a distinct group or sect in the Temple. And it should also be noted that no pious Jew would be anywhere else but in the Temple on that day -- see Acts 20:16.
We must conclude, therefore, that the MATERIAL House of YEHOVAH God served as the womb for the SPIRITUAL House of YEHOVAH God, and from it the Church was to come forth -- and soon did come forth. For a short while the two were identified, as the true spiritual “Israel of YEHOVAH God” was, for awhile, identified with “Israel after the flesh” -- the spiritual seed of Abraham with his natural seed. And this is, of course, in keeping with the revealed ways of YEHOVAH God.
This article is an illustration of how those of us who desire and attempt to be most careful in our study of the Bible can be in danger of taking things too much for granted. Most of us have proceeded on the assumption that the “one place” of Acts 2 was the “upper room” of Acts 1. What we have covered so far shows this assumption to be completely wrong!
The Source of the Living Waters
It is quite evident that our study has a direct relation to certain Biblical prophecies -- such as Ezekiel 47 -- where the prophet describes his vision of the healing and life-giving waters issuing forth from out of the Temple. It was explained to the prophet that the waters which he saw were to go down into the desert (which suggests barren Israel), and to go into the sea (which symbolizes the nations), whose waters should be healed. The description continues –
"And it shall be that every living thing that moves, wherever the rivers go, will live. There will be a very great multitude of fish, because these waters go there; for they will be healed, and everything will live wherever the river goes" (Ezekiel 47:9).
It is easy to see in this passage the familiar scriptural figures of the Gospel -- and its life-giving and healing ministry. So we note with interest that the Temple -- the House of YEHOVAH God -- was to be the source of the stream of living waters.
Therefore, we cannot fail to see in this prophetic vision a SPIRITUAL foretelling of the issuing forth of the Gospel for all mankind from YEHOVAH’s appointed center -- which broadly was Israel, more definitely Jerusalem and still more definitely THE TEMPLE! Other portions of Ezekiel’s prophecy clearly have a spiritual fulfillment in this dispensation of the holy spirit.
In this regard we should also call attention to the prophecy of Joel. Inasmuch as the apostle Peter quoted from the second chapter of Joel, showing its fulfillment in the arrival of the holy spirit, and in those miraculous events whereby its presence was made known, it is significant that, in chapter 3 of Joel’s prophecy, there is the promise that “all of the rivers of Judah will flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the House of the LORD” (Joel 3:18). Those with YEHOVAH’s spirit will be able to see in this verse and its context much that is applicable to this present dispensation -- though it could well be that the complete fulfillment of this passage, and also that quoted by Peter from chapter 2, must await the return of YEHOVAH God and His Messiah from heaven.
“Go Speak in the Temple All the Words of This Life”
We have the very significant record of Acts 5:17-25, which tells us that when the apostles were released from prison, where the Jewish religious leaders had cast them, by YEHOVAH’s angel, the angel told them to “Go, stand and speak in the Temple, to the people all the words of this life” (verse 20). This makes it clear that it was YEHOVAH’s purpose that the gospel-stream -- “the words of this life” -- should begin their flow in the Temple. In this we can see the continuity of YEHOVAH’s dealings and the orderly working out of His great plan. Everything pertaining to the old dispensation centered in the Temple. Therefore, it was more than fitting that the new dispensation should start at the very same place, and thereby move out into the world which it was to overspread.
The phrase “words of this life” is very significant. It is an aid to the right understanding of the passage because it clarifies the meaning of the expression “living waters” in the prophecies.
And, finally, the scripture tells us that, notwithstanding the strong opposition of the Jewish authorities, the disciples continued to teach and preach the Good News of the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God in the Temple and in every house -- see Acts 5:40-42).
Living Waters Flowing from the House of YEHOVAH God
For some time after Pentecost the church continued at Jerusalem, and seems to have been tolerated, in accordance with Gamaliel’s advice (Acts 5:33-40), until the time of the stoning of Stephen. After this event the gospel stream spread throughout Judea and Samaria (Acts 8:1) -- the church at Jerusalem, the spiritual house of YEHOVAH God, being thus far its source. A little while later we find another “church of YEHOVAH God at Antioch; for the Bible mentions that Barnabas sought Saul (Paul) at Tarsus and brought him to Antioch, and that for “a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people” (Acts 11:25-26). Here again, in “the church” in Antioch, we find the holy spirit in full charge. After a year of teaching inside the House, we find the living waters flowing out and producing the results that YEHOVAH God intended. For we read in Acts 13:1-2, concerning “the church that was at Antioch,” that “as they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.” And so, from the House of YEHOVAH God, and in the power of the holy spirit of YEHOVAH God, the stream of the Gospel flowed out in a new direction -- and extended farther than it had yet gone.
Still later, the gospel was carried into Europe and it came to Thessalonica -- not in word only, but also in power, and in the holy spirit, and in much assurance (1 Thess. 1:5). The result was “the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ” (1:1). This was to be an “example” or pattern for other churches, for the express reason, as the apostle wrote to them, that “From you sounded out the Word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith to God-ward is spread abroad” (1:8).
This pattern -- or modus operandi -- reached as far Glastonbury in the distant isles of Britain.
A Great Difference
Our study brings into view a great difference between the Temple -- YEHOVAH’s dwelling place in the old dispensation -- and the Church -- YEHOVAH’s dwelling place in the new. In the case of the Temple, sacrifices were brought to it, blood flowed in it, and incense (worship) ascended from it. But no healing waters flowed from it. Therefore, what Ezekiel saw, and what was revealed also to Joel and to Zechariah -- living waters going out from Jerusalem (Joel 3:18; Zech. 14:8) -- was something quite new, and to which the Temple and its ritual presented no analogy.
These prophecies concerning the “living waters” were fulfilled by the living waters of the gospel which began, on the day of Pentecost, to flow out from the Temple in Jerusalem. Yeshua the Messiah uses the expression “rivers of living water" in John 7:38, and the meaning of the expression is given in the next verse: "But this spake he of the spirit, which they that believe on him should receive." It also is revealed that the Millennial Temple -- as pictured by Ezekiel -- will be the ultimate fulfillment of these prophecies as physical AND spiritual waters gush out from beneath the Temple occupied by the Shekinah Glory of YEHOVAH God, and administered by His High Priest Yeshua the Messiah.
As a result, one of the chief lessons to be learned from the Scriptures we have studied is that the "Spiritual House" of this era should be specially marked by being the SOURCE of a freely flowing stream of living waters -- carrying life and health into all the regions round about. And where this mark is lacking, even when the form of the House is quite correct, the explanation will doubtless be found in the conditions inside the House.
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